To examine the strength of existing security defenses and countermeasures, simulate an actual hacking situation. Validate the configurations of Information Technology (IT) Assets and generate a list of known vulnerabilities in systems and applications, which can then be mitigated before being exploited by attackers. Provide a full report on each security flaw, as well as better remedial recommendations for each security flaw.

All discoverable IT assets are subject to Black Box Penetration Testing. Firewalls, routers, VPNs, IDS/IPS, Web servers, Application servers, Database servers, and other IT assets are among the IT assets.

When performing penetration testing, we follow a set of safety checks to ensure that no harm comes to the organization’s production environment.

What is Black Box Penetration Testing?

Black box pen testing is a technique for examining a system for vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an external attacker to compromise the network’s security. A black box test examines the software’s inputs as well as the outputs it produces.

The tester does not have access to the source code, implementation details, or knowledge of the software’s internals.

The test cases are written in accordance with the needs of the application. Customers’ interfaces or external interfaces that allow several computers and processes to connect to the application under test are the only ways to break into the software.

Because the pen tester has little information, black box testing takes less time than other methods of penetration testing, such as white box testing. The tester merely looks at the software’s graphical user interface and does not need to go into the code to find process flaws. In addition, because the codes have not been fully distributed, there are fewer functional specifications.

Reason to conduct Black Box Testing

  • Black box testing enables problems in functional specifications to be rapidly identified.
  • It offers unbiased tests as the designer and tester work autonomously.
  • “From the user’s position” testing takes place.
  • The Black Box test does not only identify security vulnerabilities in the system but also identifies hidden GUI problems.
  • Black Box testing simulates a user’s behavior that does not know the core software structure.

Types of Black Box Testing

There are many different forms of Black Box Testing; however, the ones listed here are the most common.

Functional testing: Software testers perform this type of black box testing, which is concerned with a system’s functional needs.

Non-functional testing: This type of black box testing is concerned with non-functional requirements such as performance, scalability, and usability rather than specific functionality.

Regression testing: Regression testing is performed after code changes, upgrades, or other system maintenance to ensure that the new code does not harm the existing code.

The procedure of Black Box Penetration Testing

How do you conduct black-box testing?

The steps to execute this testing are listed below:

  • Understanding the application under test’s requirement specifications is the first step in black box testing. An exact and accurate SRS document should be present.
  • The software will then be tested by evaluating the set of valid inputs and test cases. The goal is to minimize time while ensuring adequate test coverage.
  • Prepare the test cases to cover as many inputs as possible.
  • The test cases are executed in the system to generate output, which is then compared to the expected result to determine whether the test was successful or not.
  • The unsuccessful steps are highlighted and forwarded to the development team for correction.
  • Retest the system using a variety of testing approaches to ensure that it is repeatable or to pass it.

The black box test may be used easily to check and validate the whole life cycle of software development. It can be utilized for the evaluation of the product at many phases including unit, incorporation, acceptance, system, and regression.

What are Black Box Testing Techniques?

For black box testing there are different test case design techniques:

  • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)
  • Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP)
  • State Transition Testing (STT)
  • Decision  Table Testing (DTT)
  • Graph-Based Testing (GBT)
  • Error guessing Technique (EGT)

Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)

It is a type of black box testing that is frequently utilize and serves as the foundation for equivalency testing. Boundary value analysis puts the software to the test using test cases that have extreme test data values. BVA is utilize to detect faults or errors that occur because of input data limitations.

For example, when taking inputs for a test case data for an age section, correct data should range from 1-100. According to BVP analysis, the software will be tested against four test data sets of -1, 1, 100, and 101 to see how the system responds to boundary values.

Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP)

The input and output are checked using this test case design technique, which divides the input into equivalent classes. To guarantee that the data is thoroughly tested, it must be tested at least once. It is the most thorough type of testing, and it reduces input redundancy.

For example, we have three classes for taking inputs in test case data, which one class data will be tested in the above example.

Valid Class: 1 to 100 (any number)

Invalid class: -1 (checking the lowest of the lowest), Invalid class: 101 (highest of highest).

State Transition Testing (STT)

During the testing phase, this testing technique makes use of the system’s inputs, outputs, and state. It compares the program to the test data’s sequence of transitions or occurrences.

It tests for behavioral changes of a system in a certain state or another state while keeping the same inputs, depending on the type of software being tested.

A login page, for example, will allow you to enter your username and password up to three times. The user will be sent to the login page for each invalid password. The user will be directed to an error page after the third try. This state transition approach takes into account the various states of the system as well as the inputs to ensure that only the correct sequence is passed.

Decision Table Testing (DTT)

This method generates test cases based on a variety of scenarios. To pass the test and deliver accurate output, it considers several test scenarios in a decision table format, where each condition is checked and fulfilled. It is preferred when there are several input combinations and options.

For example, while placing an order, a meal delivery software will check several payment modes as input – making a decision based on the table.

Case 1: If the end-user has a card, the system will not check for cash or coupons and will proceed with the order placement.

Case 2: If the end-user has a coupon, no card or cash will be examined, and action will be taken.

Case 3: the action will be taken if the end-user has cash.

Case 4: If the end-user is missing something, no action will be taken.

Graph-Based Testing (GBT)

Graph-based testing is a type of testing that uses graphs. It is related to a decision-based test case design approach in that it takes into account the relationship between links and input instances.

Error Detection Method: (EDM)

This method of creating test cases entails guessing the output and input in order to correct any problems that may exist in the system. It is dependent on the tester’s abilities and judgment.

Black Box Testing Tools:

The type of black box testing you are undertaking mostly determines the tools you use for black box testing.

You can use QTP or Selenium for Functional/Regression Tests.

You can use Load Runner or Jmeter for Non-Functional Tests.


Black box testing aids in the discovery of functional, usability, and other feature deficiencies. This type of testing provides a snapshot of a software’s performance and output. It boosts software quality while slashing time to market. This type of testing reduces the likelihood of software faults at the end of the user’s journey.